WASHINGTON — President Joseph R. Biden Jr. on Thursday revealed a slate of latest govt orders and presidential directives supposed to hurry up manufacturing of Covid-19 provides, improve testing capability and require masks carrying throughout interstate journey — a part of a sprawling 200-page nationwide pandemic technique he introduced at a White Home occasion.

Taken collectively, the orders sign Mr. Biden’s earliest priorities in mounting a extra centralized federal response to the unfold of the coronavirus. A few of them mirror actions taken throughout the Trump administration, whereas most look to change course.

Right here’s what the orders purpose to do.

One order calls on company leaders to test for shortages in areas like private protecting gear and vaccine provides, and determine the place the administration might invoke the Protection Manufacturing Act to extend manufacturing. The White Home has mentioned it might use the Korean Conflict-era legislation, which the Trump administration made use of in its vaccine improvement program, to extend manufacturing of a sort of syringe that enables pharmacists to extract an additional dose from vaccine vials.

The Biden staff has mentioned it recognized 12 “immediate supply shortfalls” crucial to the pandemic response, together with N95 surgical masks and isolation robes, in addition to swabs, reagents and pipettes utilized in testing.

“On the asymptomatic screening side, we’re woefully undercapacity, so we need the money in order to really ramp up testing, which is so important to reopening schools and businesses,” mentioned Jeffrey D. Zients, the brand new White Home Covid-19 response coordinator.

One other order establishes a Pandemic Testing Board, an thought drawn from President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Conflict Manufacturing Board, to ramp up testing. The brand new administration is promising to develop the nation’s provide of fast exams, double check provides and improve lab area for exams and surveillance for coronavirus sizzling spots.

“This effort will ensure that we get testing to where it is needed and where it’s needed most, helping schools and businesses reopen safely and protecting the most vulnerable, like those who live in long-term care facilities,” Mr. Biden mentioned in his Thursday remarks.

Mr. Biden has vowed to make use of his powers as president to affect masks carrying wherever he’s legally allowed to, together with on federal property and in journey that crosses state traces. An order issued Thursday requires masks carrying in airports and on many airplanes, intercity buses and trains.

The identical order additionally requires worldwide vacationers to show they’ve a latest detrimental coronavirus check earlier than heading to the US and to adjust to quarantining pointers issued by the Facilities for Illness Management and Prevention as soon as they land.

One order calls on the well being and human providers secretary and the White Home’s Covid-19 response coordinator to re-evaluate the federal authorities’s Covid-19 data-gathering methods and subject a report on their findings. It additionally calls on the heads of “all executive departments and agencies” to assemble and share coronavirus-related information.

The Trump administration struggled final 12 months to decide on a centralized system, pitting competing packages on the Division of Well being and Human Companies and the C.D.C. in opposition to each other. Alex M. Azar II, the previous well being and human providers secretary, ordered hospitals to ship each day stories about virus instances to a non-public vendor that transmitted them to a central database in Washington, as a substitute of the C.D.C., which had beforehand housed the info. The choice, which stays in impact, angered C.D.C. scientists.

One other order creates a Covid-19 “health equity task force,” which is able to advocate carve out extra funding for elements of the inhabitants significantly arduous hit by the virus, analyzing wants by race, ethnicity, geography and incapacity, amongst different components. Mr. Biden mentioned on Thursday that the duty drive would deal with hesitancy towards taking the vaccines.

The panel, housed on the Division of Well being and Human Companies, is a component of a bigger effort by the Biden administration to attract extra consideration to persistent racial and ethnic disparities in well being care entry, as minorities have been hospitalized and died from Covid-19 at considerably greater charges. Mr. Biden appointed Dr. Marcella Nunez-Smith, an affiliate professor of inner drugs, public well being and administration at Yale, to guide the duty drive.

Mr. Biden issued an order meant to guard the well being of staff throughout the pandemic, telling the Occupational Security and Well being Administration to launch new steerage for employers. The order additionally asks the company to step up enforcement of current guidelines to assist cease the unfold of Covid-19 within the office.

The president additionally directed the Departments of Schooling and Well being and Human Companies to subject new steerage on safely reopen faculties — a serious supply of controversy over the summer season when White Home and well being division officers pressured the C.D.C. to minimize the chance of sending college students again.

The Biden administration is asking on the well being and human providers secretary and the director of the Nationwide Institutes of Well being to draft a plan to help the examine of latest medicine for Covid-19 and future public well being crises by giant, randomized trials. The remedies needs to be ones that “can be easily manufactured, distributed and administered, both domestically and internationally,” in keeping with the chief order.

The emphasis on randomized trials follows two emergency approvals — for convalescent plasma and the malaria drug hydroxychloroquine — that scarred the Meals and Drug Administration final 12 months. Federal well being officers, together with F.D.A. scientists, stay upset over the company’s choices, below Trump administration stress, to clear the remedies with out robust proof from randomized trials.

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